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Classification and characteristics of laser cutting machine manufacturing

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Classification and characteristics of laser cutting machine manufacturing

Laser manufacturing classification


—From the principle of laser, it can be known that laser has four characteristics: good monochromaticity, good coherence, good directionality, and high brightness, commonly known as three good and one high.


Laser macro-manufacturing technology can be divided into two major categories: conventional laser manufacturing and laser additive manufacturing. Laser macro-manufacturing technology mainly uses the two characteristics of laser's high brightness and good directionality.


1) Laser conventional manufacturing


1 Basic principle: After focusing the laser beam with sufficient brightness, it is irradiated to the designated part of the processed material. The processed material can undergo vaporization, melting, metallographic structure and internal stress changes after being irradiated with different plastic lasers. , So as to achieve different processing purposes such as removal, connection, modification and separation of workpiece materials.


2 Main process methods: The main process methods of conventional laser manufacturing include laser surface engineering (including laser surface treatment, laser quenching, laser spraying, laser vapor deposition, and laser shock hardening, etc.). The common domestic laser marking can also be classified in laser surface treatment Inside), laser welding, laser cutting and other main process methods.


2) Laser additive manufacturing


Laser additive manufacturing technology is a kind of additive manufacturing technology that uses laser as energy source. It is classified according to the forming principle and can be divided into two categories: laser selective melting and laser metal direct forming.


(1) Laser selective melting


(2) Working principle: Does the laser selective melting technology use a high-energy laser beam? According to a predetermined scanning path, scanning the pre-coated metal powder on the powder bed and completely melting it to form a workpiece after cooling and solidification. Its working principle


The technical characteristics are as follows


1. The forming materials are generally metal powders, mainly including stainless steel, high-temperature alloys, titanium alloys, high-strength aluminum alloys, and precious metals.


2. The mechanical properties of the formed parts are good, and the tensile energy exceeds the castings, reaching the level of training parts.


3. The feed speed is slow, resulting in low forming efficiency, and the size of the parts will be limited by the powder spreading box, which is not suitable for manufacturing large integral parts.


Features of laser manufacturing


1. Using the same laser source on the same equipment, by changing the control method of the laser source, the cutting, drilling, welding, surface treatment and other processing of the same material can be realized respectively. It can be processed in steps or Simultaneous processing in several stations.


2. The powder contact flexible processing is completed in a short time, the workpiece has no mechanical deformation, the thermal deformation is extremely small, the subsequent processing volume is small, and the loss of processed materials is also small. The laser beam is easy to realize various optical transformations such as guiding and focusing, and easy to realize automatic processing of complex workpieces.


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